Perceived Control and the Optimistic Bias: A Meta-Analytic Review
Psychology and Health
People consistently believe that negative events are less likely to happen to them than to others. Research suggests a relationship between this optimistic bias and perceived control such that the greater control people perceive over future events, the greater their optimistic bias. We conducted a meta-analysis of 27 independent samples to quantify the size of this relationship and examine what variables moderated the relationship. Greater perceived control was significantly related to greater optimistic bias, but this relationship was moderated by participant nationality, student status, risk status, and the type of optimistic bias measure used. We discuss the findings in the context of primary versus secondary control.
Klein, Cynthia T. F., and Marie Helweg-Larsen. "Perceived Control and the Optimistic Bias: A Meta-Analytic Review." Psychology and Health 17, no. 4 (2002): 437-446. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0887044022000004920