Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological Society of Virginia
The discovery of well-preserved bone material in a Native American site allowed C14 dating of the associated artifacts. The primary goal of this report is to determine the absolute age of the bone fragment, and the secondary goal is to compare this result with the ages of the artifacts based on the typological approach using the associated prehistoric ceramic and stone artifacts. The site is along Totuskey Creek in Richmond County in the area traditionally mapped as part of the Rappahannock tribal area at contact in 1607 and across the creek from their 1653 relocation site. The bone was identified as a jaw fragment from a raccoon. It was found along with ceramic (clay pipe and pottery fragments) and stone artifacts (points and drills). The pottery was dated from the Late Woodland Period to the Proto-Historic Period. The points were dated from the Late Archaic Period to the Proto-Historic Period. C14 dating of the bone gave a comparable age of 1000-1160 A.D. which places it in the Late Woodland Period which is also the median age of all the dating methods.
Key, Marcus M., Jr., Steven Vaughn, Todd H. Davis, and William Parr. "C14 Age Control on a Rappahannock Native American Site on Totuskey Creek (44RD0206) in Richmond County, Virginia." Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological Society of Virginia 64, no 4 (2009): 163-176.