Hallucinogens, Alcohol and Shifting Leadership Strategies in the Ancient Peruvian Andes
In the pre-Columbian Andes, the use of hallucinogens during the Formative period (900–300 BC) often supported exclusionary political strategies, whereas, during the Late Horizon (AD 1450–1532), Inca leaders emphasised corporate strategies via the mass consumption of alcohol. Using data from Quilcapampa, the authors argue that a shift occurred during the Middle Horizon (AD 600–1000), when beer made from Schinus molle was combined with the hallucinogen Anadenanthera colubrina. The resulting psychotropic experience reinforced the power of the Wari state, and represents an intermediate step between exclusionary and corporate political strategies. This Andean example adds to the global catalogue documenting the close relationship between hallucinogens and social power.
Biwer, Matthew E., Willy Yépez Álvarez, Stefanie L. Bautista, and Justin Jennings. "Hallucinogens, Alcohol and Shifting Leadership Strategies in the Ancient Peruvian Andes." Antiquity (Article published online January 12, 2022). https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/antiquity/article/hallucinogens-alcohol-and-shifting-leadership-strategies-in-the-ancient-peruvian-andes/15030A62A428B74805BADF7DB4137298